Using the Tungegee experiments as the inspiration, 2003's Red, White, and Black posited that several Black men served as guinea pigs for the super-soldier serum, before it turned Steve Rogers into Captain America. One Isaiah Bradley became the first really successful recipient, but was not generally acknowledged by a racist culture that wanted a Caucasian role model. Throughout his retroactive career, he met with Nelson Mandela, Jr., Malcolm X, Alex Haley, Muhammed Ali, Colin Powell, John Lennon and Yoko Ono, erm, Stan Lee, and many others.